The Lord has recently allowed me to publish another article on Zephaniah, this one related to the identity of the book’s audience:

DeRouchie, Jason S. “The Addressees in Zephaniah 2:1, 3: Who Should Seek YHWH Together?” Bulletin for Biblical Research 30.2 (2020): 183–207.

Abstract: Zephaniah 2:1 calls “the nation not longing” to bundle together in submission to the Lord, and 2:3 urges “the humble of the land/earth” to seek him increasingly. The identity of these vocatives significantly affects the book’s interpretation, but scholars generally offer one of three views on the proper referent(s): (1) Both 2:1 and 3 address Judah collectively as a rebellious nation. (2) 2:1 confronts rebellious Judah collectively, but 2:3 speaks to the enemy foreign nations. (3) 2:1 addresses rebellious Judah collectively, but 2:3 addresses the nation’s faithful remnant. After overviewing these alternatives and arguing that option three best captures the principal referents, this study argues (4) that Judah and its remnant are the primary but not sole addressees of 2:1 and 3, with the literary context suggesting that the prophet intended that other rebellious nations and their remnants see 2:1 and 3 as applying equally to them by extension.


  1. Introduction (183)
  2. Initial Reflections on the Vocative Address (184)
    • The Nation Not Longing in Zephaniah 2:1 (184)
    • The Humble in Zephaniah 2:3 (187)
  3. Different Views of the Identity of the Addressees (188)
    • Both Zephaniah 2:1 and 2:3 Address Judah Collectively as a Rebellious Nation (188)
      • Wilhelm Rudolph and Hubert Irsigler (188)
      • Marvin A. Sweeney (191)
    • Zephaniah 2:1 Addresses Judah Collectively as a Rebellious Nation, but 2:3 Addresses the Rebellious Foreign Nations (192)
      • Arnold B. Ehrlich (192)
    • Zephaniah 2:1 Addresses Judah Collectively as a Rebellious Nation, but 2:3 Addresses Judah’s Faithful Remnant (195)
      • Martin Luther, John Calvin, and the Majority View (195)
    • Judah and Its Remnant Are the Primary but Not Sole Addresses of Zephaniah 2:1, 3, Respectively (200)
  4. Conclusion (207)


See also “A Number of Studies on Zephaniah.”